Advance glaucoma and Cornea Services

Glaucoma is the second most common cause of blindness. In india there are 12 milion affected people with glaucoma. Glaucoma is a disease that damages the optic nerve by raising the pressure in our eyes which can lead to gradual or sudden loss of vision. Glaucoma damages the optic nerves causing blind spots to develop in areas of vision. 90% of the people of glaucoma are unaware of their glaucomatous disease when first diagnosed.

Types of glaucoma

  • Primary open angle glaucoma
  • Primary angle closure glaucoma
  • Normal tension glaucoma
  • Congenital glaucoma
  • Secondary glaucoma


  • Frequent change of reading glasses
  • Gradual decrease of peripheral vision
  • Headache
  • Redness, watering of eyes
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Rainbow colored halos around lights

Risk factors

  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Age >40 years
  • Certain medications
  • Near & far sightedness
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Eye injury


Several tests need d be done to confirm the diagnosis


  • Intra ocular pressure measurement (Tonometry)
  • Gonioscopy to assess the drainage angles of eyes
  • Pachymetry to evaluate the central corneal thickness
  • Perimetry to evaluate the field of vision
  • Assessment of optic nerve by photography, HRT III, OCT, GDx VCC.


Glaucoma can only be controlled not cured.


  • Vision once lost is not recovered.
  • Early detection is the key to preserve sight.
  • Persons above 40 years should undergo periodical eye examination for early detection of glaucoma.


The aim is to control intra ocular pressure


  1. Prostaglandin analogs
  2. Beta Blockers
  3. Alpha Agonists
  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs)
  5. Parasympathomimetics
  6. Combined medications
Laser treatment
Glaucoma Surgeries
Cornea is a transparent front part of the eye. Cornea refracts the light entering the eye. Ocular trauma & corneal ulcer are significant causes of blindness in developing countries.
Corneal ulcer
  • Injury
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Contact lens wear
  • Nutritional deficiency
  • Immune deficiency
Thinning and gradual bulging outward of the central cornea is known as Keratoconus. It affects one in every 2000 Indians. More prevalent in 2nd & 3rd decade of life. There is change in refractive status of the eye leading to distorted & blurred vision.


  • In milder form glasses
  • Specialized contact lenses
  • C3R (Collagen cross linking) with UVA
  • Penetrating keratoplasty


Keratoconus may lead to acute hydrops causing sudden vision loss.


Acute Hydrops


Acute Hydrops

Keratoplasty (Corneal Transplantation)
Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft). When the entire cornea is replaced it is known as Penetrating Keratoplasty and when only part of the cornea is replaced it is known as Lamellar Keratoplasty.
Indications for include the following:
Optical: To improve visual acuity by replacing the opaque or distorted host tissue by clear healthy donor tissue.
Tectonic / Reconstructive: To preserve corneal anatomy and integrity in patients with corneal thinning & perforations
Therapeutic : To remove inflamed corneal tissue unresponsive to treatment by antibiotics or anti-virals.
Cosmetic: To improve the appearance of patients with corneal scars that has given a whitish or opaque hue to the cornea.


Post KP